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5.Bd3 Bb7 6.NJ3 Bxc3+ 7.bxc3 d6 8.0c2 Nbd7 9.e4 e5 10.0-0 0-0 11.Bg5 h6 12.Bd2 Re8 13.Rael

(Diagram 133) How can Black force White to take action in the center? 13...Nh7 Another possibility was: 13...Nf8 14.h3 Ng6 15.Nh2 Re7! and Yt now 16.i4 exf4 17.Bxf4 Qe8 and White has no way of comfortably defending the e4 pawn. 14.h3 Nhf8 15.Nh2 Ne6! 16.Be3 (holding "on I) 16...c5 (he sees no other way of breaking his opponent's obstinacy) 17.d5 Nf4! 18.Be2 Nf8 and the weakness of c4 and Black's possession of the point f4 offer him chances of attack on both wings.

Since, as we have seen, it is often very difficult to induce an opponent who is hanging on to this "crouching" position to take action in our sense, it is obvious that we ought only to bring about an enemy double complex if it seems likely that we shall succeed in forcing him out of it. In this connection the lollowing opening will be found extremely instructive.

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Nimzowitsch-Rosselli While to move refrains from bringing about 1 .BxcSt bxc6, a double complex in Slack's position, as he recognizes the impossibility ol Inducing him to advance his d-pawn, lor In reply lo e4, Black would sirrply leave the pawn at dS

Nimzowitsch-Rosselli, Baden-Baden, 1925. After the moves 1.Nf3 d5 2.b3 c5 3.e3 Nc6 4.Bb2 Bg4? 5.h3! Bxf3 6.Qxf3 e5 7.Bb5 Qd6 (see Diagram 134). White could here give his opponent a doubled pawn by 8.Bxc6+ bxc6 9.e4. But what would he have gained? How can Black be forced into playing ...d4? White played 3.e4 rencurxihg the idea for the time being. 8...d4 but now with the advance ...d4 already made, the doubled complex is highly desirable for White to force. To this end White played 9.Na3 (threatening 10.Nc4 Qc7 11.Bxc6+ bxc6), and the game proceeded: 9...f6! 10.Nc4 Qd7 11.Qh5+ g6 12.Qf3 Qc7 (12...0-0-0 13.Na5 Nge714.Qxf6) 13.Qg4, and the diagonal c8-h3 soon led to Black's resigning himself to the doubled pawn in order to be rid of other unpleasantness. For the entire game see Illustrative game No. 34.

If saddled with a double complex, the player has to take into account the fact that its mobility is very limited, and therefore must suit his moves to the occasion, artfully formulated to bear on both sides. What is meant by this will appear from the following examples.

Nimzowitsch-Samisch. Dresden 1926. After the moves 1.c4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.e4 Bb4 5.d3 d6 6.g3 Bg4 7.Be2 h6 8.Be3 Bxc3+ 9.bxc3 Qd7. White was fully conscious of the dynamic weakness of his double complex, and accordingly he made his plan to let the d-pawn persist at d3 or at most d4. Observe the artful little moves of the White pieces, which suit the conditions created by the pawn configuration in the center. With small working capital (and the slight mobility of White's pawns is analogous to this), the greatest economy is necessary. The continuation was 10.Qc2! 0-011 .Qd2l If he had at once played 10.Qd2 the answer wculd have been 10...0-0-0, and the White Queen would have been very awkwardly placed at d2. After 10.Qc2 the answer 10...0-0-0 would have been met by 11.0-0 followed by Rfb1 and White would have had a fine ensemble, the Qc2 being not the least contributing factor, 11 ...Nh712.h3! Bxh3 (12...Bxf3l, but White with the Bishops is better) 13.Ng1 Bg414.f3 Be615.d4 and White won a piece and the game.

We have now submitted the doubled pawn complex to a very searching analysis. Viewed in the light of this analysis many incidents of daily occurrence appear under a new aspect. In the position in Diagram 135, reached after the moves 1 .e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.NC3 Nf6 4.Bb5 Bb4 5.0-0 0-0 6.d3 d6 7.Bg5 Bxc3 8.bxc3 Qe79.Re1 Nd8 10.d4, White is said to have the attacking position in the center. This is not true in my view. It would be true if a White pawn were at b2 instead of c2. As it is, the apparently attacking position of the d4 pawn has only the deep purpose of hiding the weakness in his own camp, namely the doubled c-pawns. Once d5 has taken place this (dynamic) weakness would be evident. Therefore the pawn configuration we have in Diagram 135 will be regarded by one who has thought the matter out as a crouching position. The game proceeded 10...Ne6 11.Bc1 c6 (11...C5 was correct here. After 12.dxe5 dxe5 13.Nxe5? Nc7) 12.Bf1 Rd8 13.g3 Qc7 14.Nh4 (and White intends to play 15.f4. So did White have the initiative in the center?! No, the situation is this - since Black at his 11th move did not take the opportunity to bother his opponent, White could, out of his crouching position, build up an attack, but originally it was in fact such a position. The continuation was: (we are following the excellent game Spielmann-Rubinstein, Carlsbad, 1911) I4...d5 15.f4! exf4 I6.e5 Ne4 I7.gxf4 f5 I8.exf6 e.p. Nxf619.f5 Nf8 20.Qf3 and Spieln.ann won in brilliant style - 20...Qt7 21 .Bd3 Bd7 22.Bf4 Re8 23.Be5 c5 24.Kh1 c4 25.Be2 Bc6 26.Qf4 N8d7 27.Bf3Re728.Re2Rf829.Rg1 Qe830.Reg2Rff731.Qh6! Kf832.Ng6+. Breaking through brilliantly. 32...hxg6 33.Qh8+ Ng8 34.Bd6. Black, hemmed in and pinned all over, has nothing (eft to oppose an invasion at g8 via the g-file. 34...Qd8 35.Rxg6 Ndf6 36.Rxf6l Rxf6 37.Rxg7l and Black resigned.

We now pass to a consideration of the next species of double complex. See Diagrams 136a and 136b. These positions are very similar, the White center pawn i (c2 and garfleo as a "crouching" one.

being on e4 or d4 according to Black's double complex on the Queenside or Kingside. The importance of this pawn configuration lies in the fact that Black may regard his c6 pawn (or f6 pawn) as compensation for his lost center, since either pawn has an action towards the center. This action finds expression in the fact that White, (in Diagram 136b) cannot use e5 as an outpost station. Furthermore, Black has the threat of ...e5, and also the possibility of ...f5 ...f4 ...Rg8 (White would here play g3), ...h5, ...f4 and ...h4. In other words, the pawn mass e6, f6, and f7, which in the first instance is defensive in its action, can deploy and be thrown forward to the attack. Its weakness lies in the isolated h-pawn. White will seek to neutralize the attack we have outlined (Black's ...Rg8, ...f5, etc.) by posting his pawns at f4, g3. and h2 with perhaps Knights at f3 and g2. The game would then be equal. It is, however, extremely difficult for Black to decide the fitting moment when to emerge from the defensive with ...f5. We give here an example -

Nimzowitsch-Dr. Perlis, Ostend, 1907. 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 dxe4 5.Nxe4 be7 6.Bxf6 gxf6 7.Nf3 Nd7 8.Qd2 Rg8. This move could have been postponed 9.0-0-0 Nf8 (protects the weak, isolated h-pawn) 10.C4 c6 11.g3 Qc7 12.Bg2 b6 13.Rhe1 Bb7 14.Kb1 0-0-0. Dr. Perlis has very skillfully turned the defensive strength of his "complex" to good use, and will soon see the moment ripe to let his double complex appear as an attacking weapon. 15.Nc3 Kb8. See Diagram 137.16.Qe3 (White feels the lack of an outpost station on e5 painfully) 16...Ng6 (already ...f5-f4 is threatened, for the Knight is now watching e5) 17.h4 f5 18.Ne5 (finally!) 18...f4! l9.Qf3 Nxe5 20.dxe5 fxg3 21 .fxg3 Bb4 with an equal game. 22.a3 Bxc3 23.Qxc3

Black has exploited his pawn com- C5 24Bxb7 Qxb7 Rxd6 26"eXd6 Rd8 27Bd1

piex defensively, white cannot use Qe4+ 28. Ka2 Rd7 and the game was abandoned as a the square eS as an outpost station draw tWO moves later.

The treatment of the problem was less convincing in the game Yates-Dr. Olland, Scheveningen, 1913. 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 dxe4 5.Bxf6? (5.Nxe4 should have been played first) 5...gxf6 6.Nxe4 f5? (the moment for the advance seems premature. The construction of the characteristic position [pawn skeleton] by means of ...b6 ...c6 ...Nd7 ...Qc7 ...Bb7, and ...0-0-0, similar to the previous game, was a better plan). 7.Nc3 Bg7 (the Bg7 now undertakes the protection of the point e5, but the f-pawn [now pushed] would have made a better watchman) 8.Nf3 0-0 (if 8...Nc6 [my recommendation] 9.Bb5 0-0 10.Bxc6 bxc6 11.Qd3l Rb8 12.0-0-0, and any Black attempt at attack would probably fail because of a White invasion of e5. For example 12...Qe7 13.Ne5 Qb4 14.b3, etc) 9.Bc4? (9.Qd2 followed by 10.0-0-0 was better) 9...b6? (9...Nc6 10.Ne2 e5l 11.dxe5 Nxe5 would have given the Black Bishops maneuvering space, i.e. 12.Nxe5 Bxe5 13.c3 Be6 and Black stands well. The important point is that the chance of playing ...e5 arose. See introductory remarks to Diagrams 136a, 136b). 10.Qd3 Bb711.0-0-0 Nd712.Rhe1 Qf613.Kb1 Rad814.Qe3 c5? (14...c6 seems better, in order to hold White's d-pawn in check, while at the same time preparing ...b5 followed by ...Nb6. The move 6...f5? has not turned out well. Black's pawn mass came to nothing, and the pawn push g4 is in the air for White). 15.d5 e516.g4 (White should have been happy with the passed d-pawn in this position. Best would have been maneuvering to restrain the Black e-pawn by Nd2 and f3. White would then stand well. The move 16.g4 leads to great complications) 16...fxg4 17.Ng5 Bh6 18.Nce4 Qg6 19.f4 exf4 20.Qxf4 and after further mistakes on Black's part White won in 44 moves.

In the game just given Black's double complex did not make itself felt as an instrument of attack. The case is quite otherwise in the following game, in which it is true we have to do with the complex of pawns c7, c6, d6 vs. c2, e4. We may regard this position as wholly identical in characteristics to the skeleton positions of Diagrams 136a and 136b.

Teichmann-Bernstein, Petrograd, 1914. 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bb5 d6 5.d4 Bd7 6.0-0 Be7 7.Re1 exd4 8.Nxd4 0-0 9.Bxc6 bsc6 10.b3 Re8

(Diagram 137a. In addition to the problem of how to take proper advantage of his double complex, Black has another"problem to solve, the restraint of the free enemy center) 11.Bb2 Bf8 12.Qd3 g6 13.Rad1 Bg7 14.f3 (forgoing the chance of attaining, by the move f4, the aggressive development of his center, he strives for a secure position) 14...Qb8 (the final measures are taken to make the effect of the intended ...f5 a powerful one) 15.BC1 Qb6 (better, according to Dr. Lasker was 15...a5, [threatening 16...a4l] 16.Na4! c5. If 16.a4, oomes 16...C5 17.Ndb5 Bc6 followed by ...Nd7 with a good game for the second player). 16.Na4 Qb7 17.Nb2! c5 18.Ne2 Bb5 19.c4 Bc6 20.Nc3 The text aims at stopping ...a5-a4. White is unable to play a4 as the b-pawn, a sick, weak child would rob him of any winning chances. 20...Nd7 21.Be3 Nb6 22.Rb1 a5

23.Bf2. (Diagram 138). Now 23...Qc8 should be played, for then 24...a4 is threatened. The reply to

24.Nd5 would be 24. .Nxd5 25.cxd5 Bd7 followed by ...a4. Other trumps, besides 24.Nd5, White hardly possesses. The Impression we gain is this. Black's ...c5 frees the square for White to play Nd5 at some pclnt, as Is therefore somewhat two-edged. If however, the primary condition to be satisfied is to keep the White e-pawn under restraint, and if an effective parry is in readiness to meet a possible Nd5, then the thrust ...c5 may be justified. The counter structure chosen in this game, White's pawns at c4, b3, a2, with Knights at b2 and c3,1 consider sound, but insufficient to win. Games by the strongest players in these lines have recently all lead to draws.

On the other hand we hold the development ...d5 to be bad, since it may easily arovoke menacing restraints. The following instructive game illustrates this. 3illecard-Dr. Bernstein, Ostend, 1907. 1 .e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bb5 d6 5.d4 ;xd4 6.Nxd4 Bd7 7.0-0 Be7 8.Bxc6 bxc6 9.b3 0-0 10.Bb2 d5 11.e5 Ne812.Qd2! White correctly thinks that the doubled Black pawns will get no stronger by advancing) 12...C5 13.Nde2 c6 14.Rad1 Qc7 15.Nf4 Qb7 (a Knight capture on d5 vas threatened). 16.Na4 (Diagram 138a. This move jshers in a blockade by the occupation of the point c5. The effect of a White Knight on c5 would be very jnpleasant It would be crippling for Black were his lawns still on c7, c6, d5) 16...C4 17.Bd4 cxb3 I8.axb3? (more logical seems 18.cxb3) 18...Nc7 !9.Nd3 Ne6 20-Ndc5 Qc7 21.Nxd7 Qxd7 22.Qe3 *xd4 23.Qxd4 Rab8 24.Nc5 Qf5 25.Nd3. White iominates the point c5, but had he played 18.cxb3, the »ressure on the open c-file would have been tppreciably strengthened. With this 10...d5 seems to ie refuted. The student who is interested in the deeper ogical connections will now say to himself: "How easy he complex c7, c6, d5 must be to blockade, for Black succeeded in undoubling the lawns, in addition White made a serious mistake (18.axb3? instead of cxb3), and et the mobility of Black's c6 and d5 pawns remained as slight as it was before!" 'his calculation is In fact correct The pawns c7, c6, d5 are very susceptible indeed d blockade. In other words the "affinity" between the doubled pawn and restraint

#1M Aggressive utilization ol tha complex. White can get hl3 outpost station at dS. Observe the appropri-ate rreaaurat taken In support of and mwmjLmmt

pin im m ■] mtm m±i which we emphasized at the beginning of this Chapter may already be accepted as probable. As we go on the probability is likely to be turned into a certainty. See game No. 12, Leonhardt-Nimzowitsch.

♦ 3. Restraint. The "mysterious" Rook moves. On true and imitation freeing moves, and how they are to be combated.

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Blackbonw-Nimxowltsch, 1914 Black makes the "mysterious" Rook move ...ReS.

In Diagram 139 White clearly intends to play d4 at any moment when this move seems feasible. Black's moving his Rook to e8 is intended to help make this freeing move difficult to execute for all time. We have here therefore an interest in preventive action. It Is only the outer form of the move which is mysterious (a Rook seizing a file which is still closed). Its strategic purpose is more clear. To demand of a piece only direct attacking activity is the stamp of the mere "woodpusher". The sharper chess mind quite rightly demands of the pieces that they also undertake preventive action. The following situation is typical: A freeing action (usually a pawn advance) planned by the opponent would give us an open file. The potential of the opening of this file, which is not in our power, we nevertheless seize, and in advance, with the idea of giving our opponent a distaste for the freeing action. The "mysterious-Rook move is an indisputable ingredient of a rational strategy. See Diagram 139a. The position is a constructed one, in the opening stage of a game, and White plays 1.Rfd1. He expects ...c5 to be played at an opportune moment, and Intends in this case after dxc5 and ...bxc5, to take advantage of the c and d-files, bringing pressure on the resulting hanging pawns (on c5 and d5).

The "mysterious" Rook move is generally an affair of the opening, though in the early stages of the middlegame it also plays an important role. In Diagram 140 Black calmly plays 1...Ra7. If White now plays 2.a3 then 2...Rfa8. Now White can only realize his plan to play b4 and c5 at the cost of certain concessions to his opponent.

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