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«66 Rubinstein-Nirmoy. Usch

Carlsbad 1907 Tha struggle of the Kings for the center square motion, and strive to reach the center of the board, for from this point he can, according to need, make for the right or left, in other words, attack the enemy King or Queen's wing.

Hirst example: White: Kg1, Black: Re8 (only the most important actors are indicated). 1.Kf2, pushing towards the center and at the same time protecting his base (the points e1 and e2) against the entry of the enemy Rook to these squares.

Second example: Diagram 65a. Here, too the first moves are Kf2-e2, and in this position White chooses the Queenside and plays Kd1 -c2, thus protecting the b-pawn and releasing the Rook, which can now undertake something, perhaps by Rd7.

Third example: Diagram 66. White played 33.Nc3 since the immediate centralization of the King would have miscarried because of ...Bd5. For instance 33.Kf1 Bc4+34.Ke1 35.Bd5 and forces the exchange of pieces or the win of a pawn. After 33...BC4 34.f4 Ke7 35.Kf2 Kd6 36.Ke3 Kc5, the proper moment for White to get in touch with the point d4 had passed. If the Kings had been at d4 and d6 respectively, the win would have been much harder. The game, however, now plays itself. 37.g4 Kb4. (This is the point. The central position c5 is to be regarded as a stepping stone to an attack on the wing, and therein lies the significance of centralization). 38.Kd4-too late. 38...Bb339.g5a440.Nb1 Be641.g3Kb342.Nc3 a3 43.Kd3 g6 44.Kd4 Kc2! and White resigned. In this example we have been able to look at this advance to the center from another side, and we have seen that it is meant not only to give our own King freedom to move about, but also to restrict the terrain accessible to the enemy King. For this reason the King will often fight for a point, as if a kingdom depended on it. The student should bear this carefully in mind, that he must leave no means untried to bring his King as near the center as possible, partly for his own King's sake, but partly also in order to limit the scope of the enemy King, who must not be allowed a place in the sun.

(b) Centralization must not be regarded as a purely Royal prerogative. The other pieces also develop a similar tendency. Take the position in Diagram 66a. Here White has two choices: King d2-c3-d4, or Nd4 followed by e3. As in the previous example, the centralization of the Knight has here a double effect. (1) He keeps, from d4, an eye on both wings. (2) He limits the liberty of the enemy King, bars, for instance, his journey via e6 to d5. If the enemy Rook is still on the board he will provide a rampart for his own King, who will take up a central position behind the Knight. Dr. Tartakower, the witty author of Die hypermoderne Schachpartle would have called this an island of pieces. Avery simple example is one which would result from Diagram 66b. 1.Nd4, followed by Kd3 with the central Island of King, Knight and pawn.

167 The centrally placed Queen allows the White King to journey Into enemy land. Hb goal wil be b6 or g6 with a frontal attack on an isotani.

167 The centrally placed Queen allows the White King to journey Into enemy land. Hb goal wil be b6 or g6 with a frontal attack on an isotani.

(c) There is no more impressive proof of the importance of centralization than the fact that even the Queen, who in truth exerts sufficient influence even if posted on the edge of the board, herself seeks to attain a central position. The ideal one would be a centrally placed Queen defended by a pawn, and in her turn defending other pawns. Under such a protectorate her King can undertake long journeys into enemy country. So, for example the Kf3 in Diagram 67 will try to get to b6 or g6. After many and long wanderings he arrives at length on one of these squares, reaches safety, and wins

♦ la. How his Majesty manages to protect himself against storms. The shelter. Bridge building.

In order to have protection from the various dangers which may threaten, let the King provide himself in good time with a serviceable shelter. Such a refuge will protect him well should astorm come up. Consider the positionof Diagram 68. Here 1 .a7? would be an obvious mistake. After 1 ...Ra2 2. Kb6 (to free the Rook), the White King would have no protection against the storm, here the series of checks bv the Rook, to which he is exposed. The right course would be to consider the point a7 as a shelter for the King, thus: 1.Kb6 Rb1+ 2.Ka7 Rb2 3.Rb8 Ra2 4.Rb6 Ra1 5.Kb7. The sun is shining again now, so the old King can venture out. 5...Rh1 6.a7 and wins.

Events would take a similar course in the position in Diagram 68a. Here the point d6 would be the shelter, so this must not be made impracticable by 1 .d6? The right move is 1.Ke6, and if 1...Re2+, then 2.Kd6 and Black has exhausted his checks, and is himself in danger since his King will be forced away from the queening square.

«8 The shelter

«8 The shelter

Endgame technique demands of us that we should be able ourselves to build our own shelter. In this, bridge building is useful. See Diagram 69. If White plays I.Kf7, :here will follow a series of checks, and in the end the White King will have to return :o g8, his purpose unaccomplished. The key move is 1 .Re4!, one which at first sight s somewhat incomprehensible. There follows 1...Rg1 and now the King may /enture forth into the light of day again. 2.Kf7 Rf1+3.Kg6 Rg1 + 4.Kf6! Rf1+5.Kg5! Rg1 r 6.Rg4! The bridge has been built! The point g5 has become a perfect shelter. Mter 4.Kf6!, Black could also have marked time, thus: 4...Rg2 (instead of 3.. Rff+). and then there follows a delicious operation, which every bridge builder must envy. Ne transport in fact the whole bridge, with ail that pertains to it, from one place o another with the move 5.Re5!!, and set up the bridge by means of R95

so that our shelter will now be at g6. This charming device belong^ to the most common of every day maneuvers, a proof of the wonderful beauty of chess.

It will be interesting to see whether 1.Re5 at once might not serve. This as a matter of fact is the case. 1.Re5 also wins, though indeed less convincingly that the "author's" solution, 1.Re4. After l.Re5 there would follow 1...Kd6 2.Kf7 Rf1+ 3.Ke8 (and not 3.Kg6 because of 3...Kxe54.g8=QRg1+),3...Rg1 4.Re7Ra1 5.Rd7+ and wins. Or "...Rg2 5.Kf8 Rg1 6.Rf7 and wins. Bridge building for the provision of a shelter for the Royal traveler is a typical constituent in endgame strategy, and is very closely connected with the maneuver which will be treated in »3. For another example of bridge building see Game number 10. where 38.NI5 creates a shelter for the White King at f3.

♦ 2. The aggressive Rook position as a characlerislic advantage in the endgame. Examples and argument. The active officer in general. Dr. Tarrasch'sformula.

The advantage of an aggressive Rook position in the endgame is a most important one. See Diagram70a (3 examples). On the far left, assuming that both players still have

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