'The chess moves described in this book are given according to the universally recognized system of Simplified Modern Notation. This easy-to-learn system of coordinates will be familiar to anyone who has ever used a road map or an A-Z street guide. The vertical lines of squares running from top to bottom o( the board as you play are called files. Each of these is identified by a letter. The horizontal lines are called ranks, and each one has a number.
Using these two coordinates, you can instantly identify any square on the board. In the diagram on page 46, the square marked with an "X" is c4.
Board diagrams always appear with Black at the top, White at the bottom.
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