Pq Nkb Pqb Pk Nqb Bn Nb Pb

BxNf 6 PxB Q-R4? (Both 6 . . . P-Q3 and 6 . . . P-QN3 are better. 7 B-Q2 N-K5 8 Q,-B2 NxB 9 NxN P-Q3

10 P-K3 Not, however, 10 P-K4? PxP 11 PxP N-B3 12 Q-Q3 P-K4! and Black can fix White's pawns on the same colour as the white bishop.

10 ... P-K4? Whereas now this move is a serious strategic error, as it allows the white bishop to reach Q5 via K4.

11 PxKP!

This seemingly weakens his central position and lays bare his doubled QBP, but in reality it is the first step towards domination of the centre.

It is clear that White is striving to occupy Q5 and at first sight a knight seems best suited for this role. However, this does not work, as after 14 P-K4? N-B3 15 KR-Q1 B-K3 16 N-Bl QR-Q1 17 N-K3 N-K2 18 N-Q5 BxN! 19 BPxB N-Bl and20. . . N-Q3 Black's blockading set-up gives him the better of it.

A vital part of the plan! This pawn will go to KB5 to prevent. . . B-K3 and thus increase White's control of Q5. In view of White's advantage in development 14 . . . PxP 15 Pxp would be in his favour.

This only helps White to clarify matters in the centre. Black should reserve this knight for a later exchange of White's bishop when it reaches Q5, and play at once 15 ... P-B3 to eliminate any tactical possibilities arising from the advance of White's KBP to B6. However, after 16 B-K4 and 17 B-Q5+ , White would still have the advantage.

17 NxN4- QxN

19 QR-Ql P QN3

Black is clearly hoping to solve his problems by ... B-N2 exchanging bishops. However, he cannot carry out this manoeuvre because of the danger of White seizing the Q-file. Another disadvantage is that Black's queen is tied down to KB3 in order to prevent P-B6 smashing up his K-side.

20 P-KR3 Giving his king a loop-hole in anticipation of 20 . . . B-N2 21 BxB R x B 22 Q-K4! when he can double the rooks on the Q. file after both 22 . . . R2-N1 23 R-Q7 or 22 .. . R-K2 23 R-Q5. So Black decides to complicate matters by preparing . . . P-QN4.

22 PxP RxP(?) According to Botvinnik, Black should play 22 . . . BxP 23 P-B4 B-B3 24 Q-K4 BxB 25 RxB when he loses a pawn but has drawing chances with the major pieces only on the board.

White's strongly posted bishop gives him a clear advantage. Note that it is Black who would stand better if White's bishop were on Q3 and his pawn on K4. White's bishop would then be 'bad' compared with the black bishop. However, in the present situation, despite the fact that most of White's pawns are on the same colour as his bishop, the latter is obviously far stronger than Black's piece on QR3 which must wander about aimlessly within its own lines. Black now threatens to exchange bishops by . . . B-N2, so White immediately prevents this.

After 24 . . . Rl-Nl 25 RxR RxR (25 . . . QjxR? 26P-B6! threatening 27 (¿-Mf) 26 Q-R4 Q-K2 27 P-B6! Pxp 28 Q-B2 K-N2 29 R-B3 White has a strong attack. Also possible here is the simple 26 R-Nl.

25 RxR PxR

28 QrR7 B-Kl

30 P-QR4

Black cannot now prevent P-R5 winning a pawn. The game ended as follows: 30... K-R2 31 P-R5 Px P 32 QxRPRR3 33 Qx p R-R7 34 Q-K3 Q. R3 35 R-N8 Q-R5 36 K-R2 R-R6 37 Q-B5 R-R7 38 R-R8 QxR 39 BxQ RxB 40 QxP B-B3 41 Q-B7 1-0.

In our note to move 20 of the above game, we saw how White could win by posting his rook on Q5 and centralising his queen on K4. We do not meet this type of centralisation as much as the one involving minor pieces, but in certain circumstances it can be just as effective. Usually it is combined with pressure against the KP, as the following typical example illustrates.

81 Botvinnik-Chekhover

Leningrad 1938, Nimzo-Indian Defence

1 P-Q4 N-KB3 2 P-QB4 P-K3 3 N-QB3 B-N5 4 N-B3 0-0 5 B-N5 P-Q3 6 P-K3 Q-K2 7 B-K2 P-K4 8 QrB2 R-Kl 9 0-0 BxN 10 PxB P-KR3 11 B-R4 P-B4 12 QR-K1 B-N5

13 BxN!

Beginning the fight for the occupation of Q5, as in this connection Black's knight is more important than White's QB.

This gives White immediate control of the vital Q5 square. Botvinnik recommends 14 . . . B-B4! 15 QxNP N-Q2 when Black has good piece play for the pawn.

15 BxB N-B3

There is nothing to be gained from 18

. . . RxR 19 PxR N-K2 20 P-Q6! Qx P 21 Qx NP Q-QN3 22 R-Nl, but somewhat better is 18 ... Q-K2 19 Rl-Ql P-KN3 when White would have to play 20 P-N4! in order to maintain his queen on K4.

20 P-KR3 RxR

A characteristic position has arisen in which the pressure against Black's KP stops him exchanging the heavy pieces e.g. 21 . . . R-Ql 22 RxKP NxP? fails to 23 R-K8+ RxR 24 QxR+ K-R2 25 Q-K4+ . It is interesting to note that Black's pawn structure is far superior to White's, as the doubled QBP would be a serious weakness in the ending.

However, he cannot co-ordinate his forces because of White's beautifully centralized pieces.

22 B-N4 QrN2 Preventing 23 R-Q7.

White has achieved maximum effectiveness for his centralised pieces. His bishop now guards the queen, so that R-Q7 can no longer be prevented, and after 23 . . . P-N3 24 BxP PxB 25 QxNP+ K-Bl 26 R-Q6 wins.

25 QxP NxP

26 QxQ RxQ,

And now the bishop heads for Q5! This factor, in conjunction with the rook on the seventh rank, is enough to guarantee a comfortable win. The game ended: 27 ... N-R6 28 B-Q5 R-KB1 29 P-K4 P-QR4 30 P-QB4 P-QN4 31 Px P Nx P 32 P-K5 P R5 33 P-B4 N-Q.5 34 K-B2 P-N4 35 P-N3 PxP 36 PxP N-K3 37 K-K3 finally the king is centralized, a typical occurrence in the endgame 37 ... P-B5 38 P-B5 N-B4 39 R-B7 N-Q6 40 P-K6 1-0.

In both the above games White's centralized pieces were beautifully co-ordinated. The placing of a piece on a central square does not in itself guarantee an advantage unless it is coordinated with the other pieces. Our next game contrasts the effectiveness of centralized pieces in the light of this statement.

82 Teichmann-Chigorin

Cambridge Springs 1904, Queen's Gambit

1 P-Q4 P-Q4 2 P-Q04 N-QB3 3 N-KB3 B-N5 4 PxP BxN 5 PxN BxBP 6 N-B3 P-K3 7 B-B4 N-B3 8 P-K3 B-N5 9 Q.-N3 N-Q4 10 B-N3 0-0 11 B-Q3 Q. N4! 12 {£-82 Not 12 0-0? BxN 13 PxB NxKP!

12 ... P-B4! Securing Q4 for his knight. At the same time this move gives White's bishop a square at K5, but as we shall see this centralized piece has little influence on the remainder of the game.

At first sight White's position does not look too bad. He has the two bishops, a central pawn majority and a centralized bishop on K5 which seemingly gives him the possibility of a later K-side attack. Nevertheless, within the space of a few moves Black manages to shatter the somewhat weakened enemy king's position. What is the explanation for such a rapid collapse of White's game? The answer • lies in the excellent co-ordination of the black pieces. The centralized knight is well supported by the bishop, and the queen can quickly be transferred to the Q-side. White's bishop on K5 proves in reality to be practically useless, as White has no time to open up the KN-file in order to put pressure on the KNP (Black will of course refrain from capturing the white KNP!). Nor can the bishop be used for defence, as it is completely cut off from the Q-side by its own QP.

16 KR-N1 QrK2

17 QR-Bl

White also loses quickly after 17 K-N2 R-Nl 18 P-N4 P-N5 19 P-QB4 N-B6 20 QR-KB1 N-R5+ 21 K-Rl P-N6 etc.

White's position is now in ruins and

Black has various ways of building up his attack. The game ended as follows: 21 Q R1 R-Ql 22 P-N3 N KSf 23 K-K2 N-B4 24 Q-Nl NxB 25 QxN QxPf 26 K-B3 B-B7! 0-1.

Our next game is instructive because Black achieves complete centralization of his pieces, whereas the White pieces, which are partially decentralized, do not exert the same influence on the game.

83 Novotelnov-Averbakh

19th USSR Championship 1951, Catalan System

1 P-Q4 N-KB3 2 P-QB4 P-K3 3 N-KB3 P-Q4 4 P-KN3 B-K2 5 B-N2 0-0 6 0-0 QN-Q2 7 QB2 P-B3 8 B-B4(?) P-QN3 9 N3-Q2 B-N2 10 P-K4 R-Bl!

Black chooses the right moment to liquidate pawns in the centre whilst increasing the activity of his pieces.

12 BPxP KPxP

Also good is 12 . . . BPxP 13 P-Q6 PxN 14 PxB QxP 15 PxP P-K4 followed by 16 . . . N-B4, but Black plans to clear the centre of pawns and post his pieces there.

13 NxP NxN

14 PxN PxP

16 QxQP N-K3

18 B K3 BxP

19 Q.N1

The point of Black's whole manoeuvre beginning at move 12 is that White's queen has to be content with retreating to QN1, limiting its own activity and that of the QR. Other queen moves would have cost at least a pawn e.g. 19 Q-Q3 BxB 20 QxQ RxQ 21 KxB R-B7. Or 19 Q-KN4 BxB 20 KxB R-B7 21 KR-Q1 RxP 22 N-B4 Q-R1+. Or finally 19 Q-QR4 R-R4 20 Q-B2 BxB 21 KxB RxP! 22 RxR Q-Q4+ etc.

20 KxB R-Q4

21 R-Ql

Or 21 N-B3 B-B3 and White can find no squares for his pieces.

22 K-Nl

He cannot play either 22 N-B4 P-QN4 or 22 N-K4 BxP!

Black's superiority is self-evident but there still remains the problem of exploiting it. After 23 ... N-B4 (threatening . . . N~Q6) 24 BxN RxN

25 B-R3 R1-K7 White can defend by

26 RxR QxR 27 Q-KB1 when both

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