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Much stronger than taking with the pawn. The knight on c5. beautifully centralized, radiates power in every direction (something a pawn cannot do).

The disappearance of White's d-pawn has benefited Black's bishop, hidden away at a7. Its range has been extended, so that it now controls the whole of the long diagonal leading to White's f2-pawn - and ihe king is just behind the pawn!

What shall White do now? 1 le has done nothing to relieve the plight of his e-pawn - it is still attacked by one of Black's knights, while his bishop is threatened by the other.

lie rlin 1907 17

11 £>xe5 This looks plausible, as White gets rid of a powerfully placed piece, but in making this exchange. White's own 13-knight, the best defender of the castled position, also comes off the board. The importance of hold ing on to the knight in such situations was pointed out by Steinit/. more than seventy years ago. when he said, "Three unmoved pawns on the kingside in conjunction with a minor piece form a strong bulwark against an attack on that wing." Tarrasch attests to the valuable properties of the f3-knighi with a simple emphatic statement: "A knight at f3 116 lor Black | is the best defence of a castled position on the kingside." 11 ... WxtS (D)

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Observe that White's knight has disappeared completely from the board, but Black's knight has been replaced by another piece

This new piece, the queen, is magnificently posted at e5. She dominates the centre, bears down on the hapless e-pawn. and is poised for quick action on any part of the board.

How does White solve the problems posed by the position of the menacing queen and the attacks on his c-pawn? He would love to dislodge the queen by 12 14, hut unfortunately the move is illegal. Can he save the pawn? 12 G\d2

Desperately hoping that Black will snatch up the pawn by 12...£}xe4, when there would follow 13 £^xe4 W\e4 14 £cl. and the pin wins the queen.

But Black is not interested in grabbing pawns. His positional superiority is great enough to justify looking for a combination that will conclusively force a win. His bishops exert terrific pressure on their respective diagonals (even though one bishop is still undeveloped!). Each of them attacks a pawn shielding the king. Black's queen is ready to swing over to the kingside, while the knight can leap in if more help is needed. Black controls the centre, a condition that. Capablanca says, is essential for a successful attack against the king. In short. Black is entitled to a winning combination as reward for his methodical positional play.

The question is: is there a target available for the explosion of this pent-up power?

Yes. indeed! The h pawn, which innocently moved to h3 to prevent a pinr

Black removes the offending pawn - fit punishment for the crime of weakening White's position and betraying his king.

13 gxh3

While must capture the bishop or be a pawn down with nothing to show for it.

A crashing entrance! Notice how Black has exploited the two main defects of 9 h3. He captured the h-pawn itself and utilized the ,t>3-square, weakened by its advance. as a point of invasion.

White may not take the queen, as his f-pawn is pinned.

Black destroys another defending pawn, lurther exposing the king.

15 Agl

White's only move. In return for the sacrificed bishop. Black has two pawns and the attack.

Threatens mate on the move. White must guard against the threat at h2 or give his king a flight-square. If he tries to give his king room by 16 fle 1, he lulls into 16...¿lx!2#. Hence...

To guard h2 and stop mate by the queen.

How- does Black conclude the attack? He reasons it out this way: 1 have captured two ol the pawns near the king. If I can remove the third pawn it will deprive the king of the last shred of protection, and he w ill be helpless. This last defender, the f-pawn. is attacked by my knight and bishop, and protected by his rook and king. I must either drive off one of the defenders or attack the pawn a third time. Perhaps I can do both!

16 ... «g3+ Again exploiting the circumstance that the f-pawn is pinned. Black attacks it with a third piece, the queen. 17 &h\(D)

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The king must move to the corner and desert the pawn. Only the rook defends it now, against an attack by queen, knight and bishop. The pawn must fall, and with it the game.

Covers the king's flight-square, gl. and prevents him from returning there in answer to a check.

Black's threat was 18.. «^3+ 19 C>h2 Wxh2#. As 18 Z\f2 runs into 18...£ixf2#. there was no escape.

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Game 2 Liubarski - Soultanbeieff

Liege 1928 Giuoco Piano

1 c4

One of the best moves on the board! A pawn occupies the centre, and two pieces are freed for action.

One hundred and fifty years ago the great Philidor said, "The game cannot better be opened than by ad-\ anting the e-pawn two squares." This advice is still good today.

Only one other white first move, I d4. releases two pieces at the same time.

'Probably the best reply," says

Capablanca.

Black equalizes the pressure in the centre and frees his queen and a bishop.

This is superior to such developing moves as 2 £lc3 or 2 Ac4. which arc less energetic The g I -knight comes into play with attack. which cuts down ihe choice of reply.

Black must defend his pawn with 2...£k6or 2...d6or he may decide to counterattack by 2...£}f6.

Whatever his answer, he cannot dawdle. He must do something to meet White's threat.

Undoubtedly the logical move. I he pawn is protected without loss of time and the b8-knight is dcvcl-«»ped to its best post in the opening in one move,

3 jLc4

Excellent, since the bishop seizes an important diagonal. The bishop strikes at f7, Mack's weakest point.

A bishop is utilized to greatest effect either in controlling an important diagonal or in pinning (and rendering useless) an enemy piece.

3 ... iuc5 3...£}f6 is a good alternative. Either move is in accord with the maxims of the masters, which they advocate and put to use:

• Get your pieces out fast1

• Move each piece only once in the opening.

• Develop with a view to control of the centre.

• Move only those pawns that facilitate the development of pieces.

S SLW+

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White's intentions are clear: he wants to support a pawn advance in the centre His next move, 5 d4, will attack pawn and bishop. To save his e-pawn. Black will be forced to play 5...exd4, The recapture by 6 cxd4 will give White a strong formation of pawns in the centre.

White's idea has some point if it can be enforced. If the plan fails, his pawn standing at c3 deprives the bI-knight of its most useful square.

Chess is not a game to be played mechanically. Usually, moving a piece twice in the opening is a waste of time, but threats must be parried before continuing development.

The bishop retreats in order to pre-empt White's contemplated 5 d4, which attacks pawn and bishop.

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Hoping to induce Black to exchange pawns. Note lhat Black's e-pawn is attacked, but not his bishop.

Instead of exchanging pawns (as he would have been compelled to do il his bishop were also under attack) Black defends his e-pawn while bringing another piece into play. His queen has advanced only one square, but even so the move is laudable:

The act of leaving the back rank constitutes a developing move.

In addition to developing a piece and defending a pawn. Black's last move threatens to continue 6...exd4 7 cxd4 Wxc4+, winning a pawn.

Besides the usual benefits derived from castling (safeguarding the king and mobilizing the rook) White's move indirectly protects his e-pawn. It Black tries 6...cxd4 7 cxd4 #xc4, ihen 8 Se 1 pins and wins the queen. 6 ... £>K! (P)

The knight develops with a threat - attack on the e4-pawn.

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