White gestures as if to attack the Black king, but his real intention is to take complete control of the dark squares, an ambition he fulfils admirably. Just watch the rest of the game! And consider also the role that White's flank attack has had in creating weaknesses to attack. 18 ... Bf7 19 g5! &g7 20 £eS &h6 21 gh6 gffB 22 £d7 gf7 23 ®h8 24 £h3 £c8 25 ©d2 £g7 26 F4 £b8 27 gdhl ¿£,ac4 28 ©d3 gbb7 29 b3 £}a3 30 e41 de4 31 ijce4 £>e4 32 ©e4 4jbS 33 ©eS

Really rubbing it in. 33 ... £be7 34 j2.fl Black resigns

There is no defence to and ,£Jg6.

Now we consider a somewhat different version of the :heme of late castling, in which the centre is completely closed and all the main play takes place on the flanks. Should the king be committed at an early stage to one flank or the other, it becomes far more difficult to organise active play on that flank because of the risk of opening up lines against your own king. Therefore the king stays in the centre until the situation has been clarified.

It is not easy to play in such a manner, but the late Tigran Petroslan specialised in such positions and won many an outstanding victory,

Game 7 T Petrosian v A Lutikov USSR Championship 1959 1 £}f3 £jf6 2 c4 g6 3 £,c3 ,&g7 4 e4 0-0 S d4 d6 6 $e2 eS 7 d5

Petrosian's own system. Normally White plays 0-0 £>c6 and only then 3 dS, met by 8 ..< This then usually leads to a race in which White throws everything at the Black queenside, hoping to gain a decisive advantage there before Black mates him on the kingside, Black trying to roll his pawns with ... f5-f4, ... g5, etc. For example, one popular line continues 9 £>el £}d7 10 £e3 fS 11 f3 f4 12 Qf2 g5 13 b4, etc,: not a system for those who want a quiet life.

Visually, Petrosian's System looks similar, but strategically it is a world apart. White reasons that if he can take the sting out of f5, his advantage in spacc in the centre and queenside will be a major strategic asset. Therefore he must take active measures on the kingside himself to slow Black down; ;2g5, (pinning the knight on fh), <£}d2 and g4 are standard moves in this plan, a plan which early kingside castling does not fit at all well. On the queenside, White hopes gradually to be able to open up lines, although Black's knight is better placed for defence in this sector when on b8 than when on e7. Both sides are jostling for position on both flanks, with White's claim for an edge resting on two main counts:

(1) that White's advantage in space makes it easier to transfer pleccs From one flank to the other;

(2) that Black has committed his king to the kingside, while White is able to wait and see which flank is ultimately safer.

Space and flexibility; not a bad combination, 7 ... <£a6 8 &g5 h6 9 £.h4 cS 10 £>d2! ,Qd7 11 £>b5 8 12 a3 &d7

Play on both wings. Now it will be difficult for Black to force ... fS without allowing White too many open lines. 13 ... £}c7 14 Qc3 aG iS a4 ^c8 16 h3 gb8 17 &c2 $d7 18 b3 b6 19 £}dl bS

Another typical "freeing move" in the King's Indian, but White is ready for this as well.

If 20 ... bc4 21 bc4 the open b-file will be of more use to White than Black.

Better 23 ... £)£8- Now White has a queenside break.


The game is now strategical!y decided. There are stljl one or two details to be sorted out ...

Black has absolutely tio chance of organising an effective kingslde counterattack-

29 ... gf7 30 £dc4 £b4 31 gb7 32 £c3 h5 33 gfS gfS 34 ef5 e4 35 <gh2 ef3 36 2f3 ¿Jd4 37 &d3 ¡$6 38 ggî ®h7 39

40 &c3 #.f8 41 £g6 gf7 42 £g5 and Black resigned without resuming play.


Black Delays Castling

In this chapter, we concentrate attention on positions and games in which Black has positive reason to delay castling deliberately, rather than on those dreary positions in which Black finds that castling is impossible for tactical reasons {e.g. $,xh7+)t and has to muddle along the best he can with his king still in the centre. In addition, there is the common enough situation, though again not considered in detail here, in which Black waits for White to castle first, so as to castle on the same side of the board as White to avoid being caught in an uneven race with both players attacking kings on opposite flanks. For a more detailed consideration of this type of theme, see the companion booklet on opposite side castling by Peter Clarke.

Generally, late castling by Black is not a viable option if the centre is open, or if there is the imminent possibility of central pawns being exchanged in order to open central lines. Neither, though, is late castling a common option for Black in completely closed positions (e.g. White pawns on c4, dS, e4 versus Black pawns on c5 (or c7), d6, e5).

since in SLfch positions it is important for the player with less space to be able to coordinate his activities on either flank, and this becomes much more difficult with an uti-castled king keeping the rooks apart-

So what type of central pawn formation is most likely to be consistent with delayed castling for Black? There seem to be two main categories:

(1) Black has the tight "Scheveningen" pawn centre with pawns on e6 and dG, which make it difficult for White to open up lines to get at the Opposing king.

(2) Black delays castling in order to break up the White centre, leading typically to a position where Black has the better centra! pawn structure, but White has powerful compensation in terms either of development or of the destruction of Black's kingside.

The first type of position comes most typically from the Sicilian Defence; the second type either from the sharper lines of the Queen's Gambit (Black plays ... dc4 and tries to hold on to the pawn) or from the French Defence (White plays Black plays ... cd4).

Of course, there is not the space in the course of this brief monograph to write a detailed assessment of Black's king placement strategies in the Sicilian, although anyone wishing tu play- this extremely complicated opening would be well advised to pay particularly close attention to this facet when studying grandmaster games. We can however look at an example when everything goes right for Black.

Game 8 J Timman V M Tal Milversum Uth match game) 1988 1 e4 cS 2 £>f3 dG 4 d4 cd4 4 £,d4 s £)c3 eG 6 f4 ait 7

8 £,b3 &c7 9 g4 bS 10 g5 b4!? Immediate counterattack, although 10 ... £>fd7 has also been played. There is no joy for White in 11 gf6 bc3, or in 11 £>dS £,d5 12 edS £)b7, or in 11 £,e4! 12 #e4 £>7, so

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