Id xd xh xh h VV

Kasparov won the world title in 1985 and held it for 15 years before losing it to Kramnik in London 2000. Kramnik won 8V2-6V2 without losing any games, while winning the 2nd and 10th games. The result was a surprise to most observers. Kasparov was (and is) consistently 30-50 Elo points higher rated than Kramnik, had huge matchplay experience and an almost flawless matchplay record (forgetting for a moment the electronic beasts ). Kramnik, on the other hand, had previously been somewhat...

The Human Factor and the World Championship

The human side of the game is important even at the highest level. Let us consider the impact of the human factor on two of the historical events in chess of the past 20 years when Kasparov won the world championship from Karpov in 1985 and when Kramnik in turn took the crown from Kasparov in 2000. Obviously there are a number of pure chess reasons for these results, but here I want to focus on the human side of these encounters. I should note that this is my interpretation of the events as an...

The Opponents The Role of the Human Factor in Chess

The most fundamental element common to all strategy is the clash of antagonistic, purposeful and intelligent wills between opponents, be they enemies at war or businesses in competition or players in a chess game . From Clausewitz on Strategy Despite the inherent differences of business, war and chess, these disciplines have one thing in common strategy. Therefore it is interesting and useful to relate thinking from business and military strategy to chess. As I have discussed in the earlier...

Contents

Dedication and Acknowledgements 4 1 What is Chess Strategy 7 2 The Factors Shaping Chess Strategy 17 3 The Opponents The Role of the Human Factor in Chess 21 4 Characteristics of Reflectors 36 5 Characteristics of Theorists 62 6 Characteristics of Pragmatics 89 7 Characteristics of Activists 118 8 Environmental Factors 146

Game Theory and Chess

As I just mentioned, chess is a zero-sum game. The term 'zero-sum' stems from game theory - the branch of mathematics that deals with strategic decision-making. Chess is a sequential game - the players make moves (decisions) in turn. Sequential games can be analysed and studied by using game trees. A game tree shows the sequential decisions that the players can take. A very simple game tree might look like this This is a simplistic game tree of the opening position, assuming that White only has...

Sustainability of Advantages

Business strategy is about pursuing competitive advantages, and so is chess. However, an advantage is not just an advantage. What is equally important is the durability of the advantage - is it sustainable Steinitz was the first to point to two basic types of advantages in chess temporary and lasting advantages. Temporary advantages only exist for a very short while - perhaps just one move - and must be exploited immediately. Otherwise, the opponent can repair his position and nullify the...

Observed Strategy

Unrealized strategy confined to the notes. The move 34 h6 , on the hand, illustrates an emergent opportunity Black voluntarily weakens his light squares even further, which Karpov could not have taken for granted in advance. Grandmasters are very good at noticing these emergent opportunities and are consequently always ready to change their plans. However, the big question is when you should spend time and energy conceiving long-term strategic plans, and when you should prioritize concrete...

General Concepts

You may or may not agree with me on the placing of all players. That is fine. That simply goes to show that working with human personality (in business, chess or real life) is not an exact science. It also indicates the important point that all strong players can adapt and play in different styles. But even if being able to adapt according to the position is essential for all chess-players, we still have certain areas of the game that deep inside we prefer and play better than other areas. To...

H f Hg hl

Vacating h2 for the rook, so that the h-pawn decides after 41 2g6 42 2h2. To my mind, the Karpov-Kasparov and Kas-parov-Kramnik encounters are excellent examples of the important role that the human factor plays in chess. As already formulated by Clausewitz - the Prussian military strategist -175 years ago, the core element of all strategy (in battle, business and chess) is the clash between two (or more, as is seen in business) opponents with opposing objectives both sides want to win, and if...

Lars Bo Hansen

Applying Business Methods to Chess Preparation and Training First published in the UK by Gambit Publications Ltd 2005 Copyright Lars Bo Hansen 2005 The right of Lars Bo Hansen to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover...

Smyslov Benko

1 c4 c5 2 sf3 f6 3 g3 g6 4 b3 Ag7 5 i.b2 b6 6 amp g2 b7 7 0-0 0-0 8 sc3 d5 Like in the previous game, Black voluntarily enters an endgame where he can only hope for a draw. This is a dangerous strategy against a reflector, even for an endgame specialist like Benko. 8 sa6 and 8 e6 are solid alternatives. 9 gt xd5 gt xd5 10 Axg7 lt S xg7 11 cxd5 lfxd5 12 d4 cxd4 13 xd4 xd4 14 amp xd4 xg2 15 lt 4 xg2 D This position has occurred in many games, even at grandmaster level. A number of these games...